Black Hat SEO refers to strategies and techniques that focus on gaming the search engine results by disobeying the rules, guidelines and regulations. These strategies aim to gain quick results and tend to run into penalties and losses in traffic.
White Hat SEO refers to techniques and strategies that abide by the rules, guidelines and regulations of Search Engines. They tend to focus on the user rather than the search engines. White Hat SEO is a long term strategy and avoids any penalties handed out by Search Engines.
Meta Keywords are a html element found in the head of a webpage and are used to indicate to search engines what the webpage is about. These are no longer a ranking factor for search engines and are largely ignored these days.
Link building are efforts to gain links from other webpages to your own website to increase its authority on the web. Each link is like a vote for your page and is a strong ranking factor for search engines.
Anchor text are the clickable part of a html link. Anchor texts are important for SEO a they are relevant to the linked page. Giving the user and search engines an idea of what the linked page is about. Using keywords for anchor text benefits SEO because they increase the association between a page and keyword.
Google Penguin was first introduced in April 2012 and aimed to improve the search engine results by penalising websites that used unnatural links to game the search engines and gain a high visibility for competitive keywords.
Google Panda update first launched in February 2011 and its purpose was to improve Google’s search results by promoting websites with high quality content and demote websites with low quality content. Mostly affected content farms and aggregators.
Google Hummingbird was a complete revamp of the Google algorithm. Rather than focus on keywords Hummingbird tried to focus on user intent to better understand what content the user was searching for. Google understood semantic search better and user engagement became more of a ranking factor.
On page optimisation is the process of inserting keywords and synonyms into a web document. By doing this you improve the relevancy and visibility of the document to keywords and phrases that have a high volume of searches.
The Meta description is a html element found in the head of a webpage. The meta description is used to give a brief description of what can be found in the document. The Meta description is not a SEO factor but can entice users to click through to pages from the SERPs which indirectly impacts rankings.